Nov 25, 2008

Ninth - Adjectives

An adjective is a word whose main role is to modify a noun or pronoun, giving more information about the noun or pronoun's referent.[5]

In Mapuzugun, adjectives do not agree neither in number nor in gender with the substantive.[1] They are always placed before the noun they modify.[4]

Adjectives in Mapuzugun can have a plural marker[1] (see note about plural partitive at the footnote in this entry), which is formed by adding the end particle "-ke" to the adjective.
Fvxa (big) ce (people): The big people (grownup/s)
Fvxake ce: In this case, the meaning is "big people" (and not "the" big people)
Kvme (good) zomo (woman):
kvmeke zomo (good women and not "the" good women)

Adjectives do not agree with the gender of the modified noun.
Kvme (good) remanis unchanged, even before certain nouns that intrinsically mark a gender (e.g. wenxu = "man" and zomo = "woman")
Kvme wenxu = good man
Kvme zomo = good woman
Kvme caw = good father
Kvme ñuke = good mother

1. Demonstrative adjectives[1]
Are formed by the Demonstrative Pronoun + the particle "-ci"
Tvfaci: this, these
Tvyeci: that, those
Tvfaci kawej: this horse
Tvfaci zomo: this woman
Tvyeci wigkul: that hill
Tvyeci ufisa: that seep
Note: "tvfa" and "tvye" without the particle "-ci" mean "here there is a..." and "there, there is a..."
Remember the absense of the verb "to be" in this kind of sentences.
Tvfa kawej: "here is a horse", "there is a horse here"
Tvye ufisa: "there is a sheep", "there is a sheep over there"

2. Possessive adjectives:
These adjectives mark possession (to whom something belongs)

1st pers. (iñce) ñi (my)
2nd pers. (eymi) mi (your)
3rd pers. (fey) ñi (his, her, its)

1st pers. (iñciw) yu (our: of the two of us)
2nd pers. (eymu) mu (yours: of you two)
3rd pers. (feyegu) ñi (their: of the two of them)

1st pers. (iñciñ) yiñ (our: of all of us)
2nd pers. (eymvn) mvn (your)
3rd pers. (feyegvn) ñi (their)

Note that both the possessive for the 1st person singular "iñce" and the possessive for the 3rd person in all groups are the same. If the speaker considers that this may be confusing for the hearer, the personal pronoun is added.
Iñce ñi ruka = my house
Fey ñi ruka = his house
Feyegu ñi ruka = their house (of the two of them)
Feyegvn ñi ruka = their house (of them all)

The particle "ta-" can be used, having only an expletiv function[3]
Iñce ñi waka rume moxi (my caw is very fat)[1]
Ñi waka rume moxi
Tañi waka rume moxi
Note: "rume" means "very". "Moxin" means: fat.

Iñciw yu kvzaw zoy kvmey
Our job is better or literally, "(we) our work more good"[1]
Other options:
Yu kvzaw zoy kvmey
Tayu kvzaw zoy kvmey
Note: "zoy" means "more". "Kvmen" (it a verb devived from "kvme" = "good") and means: "to be good".

The possessivo agrees with the subject in the sentence and is palced before the possessed noun.[4]
Tvfa ñi meli kawej = these (are) my four horses (remember the verb "to be" is not in this kind of sentences)
This could also be: Tvfa iñce ñi meli kawej
Note: the adjective is placed between the possessivo marker and the noun.
Tvye (iñciñ) yiñ wenxu xewa = that (is) our dog.

[1] Cañumil, Tulio et al, op. cit.
Nota: the
partitive plural is a grammatical number that is used to modify a noun which represents a part of some whole amount, as opposed to the comprehensive plural, used when the noun represents the total amount of something. The partitive indicates an indefinite quantity of a noun.
This case is not found in English.

In Mapuzugun the plural partitive marks a noun without specific identity.
Kiñeke ce koxv iyael kvmentukey = Some people like salty food[2].
Compare this with: Pu mapuce kvmentukey napor = The mapuche people like herbs[2]
Other examples
Re picike poñv xipay = We harvested only small potatoes[2]
Fvtake kagkan mvley gijatun mew = There are big grills in a Guillatun [2]
Kuseke ufisa yafv ilo niey = Old sheeps have tough meat[2]
[2] Catrileo, María, Diccionario Lingüístico-Etnográfico de la Lengua Mapuche, Ed. Andrá Bello, 1998
[3] The "expletive" function of a word (or particle, in this case) means that the word or particle performs a syntactic role but contribute nothing to meaning. It is used to complete or harmonize the phrase.
[4] Catrileo, Maria, Mapudunguyu - Curso de lengua mapuche, Univ. de Chile, Facultad de Filisofía y humanidades, 1988
Note: Maria Catrileo's book is written using the Unified Alphabet and the transcriptions in this entry were adapted by me. Should you find a mistake, please do write me an email or leave your comment for this entry.

Nov 20, 2008

Eighth - Caliwvn (Greetings)

Usual Greetings.

The standard greeting among the Mapuce people is "mari mari".
It cannot be translated literally as it just repeats twice the numeral "mari" = ten.
After this phrase, it is usually added the word "brother/sister" that presents certain particularities.
Women should call both men and women using the word: "lamgen" (also pronounced "lamien" or "lamuan" depending on the local varitations)
Men say "lamien" ("lamgen" / "lamuan") to women BUT "peñi" to other men.

1. Gvxamkan: Conversation:

- Mari mari
- Mari mari, ¿cumleymi?
- (Iñce) k
vmelen, ¿eymi kay?
- Iñce kafey

- Mari mari, ¿cumleymi?
Note the use of the inverted question mark as in Spanish: ¿cumleymi?
This question is composed by the interrogative pronoun "cum-" = how; "-le-" as we explained in a previous entry (Seventh - Pronouns, 4.5.) this particle marks that what is being asked or mentioned is happening at the moment it is pronounced, a sort of Present Continuous marker, although it is also used to "verbalize" words, as in this case. "-ymi" is the suffix for the 2nd. Person Singular.
In her Mapuce Course[1] Maria Catrileo recommends the use of the Interrogative Particle "am", then this question should be: ¿cumleymi am?. According to Prof. Cañumil, the Particle "am" should not be used in this kind of constructions and this is the position I will take for this blog.

- (Iñce) kvmelen, ¿eymi kay?
Note: the Personal Pronoun "iñce" is between brackets to mark its use is not mandatory. The verbal suffix "-n" marks the 1st Person Singular and makes irrelevant the use of the Personal Pronoun.
The response to the previous question is "kvme-" (of "kvmen" good) + the particle "-le-" + the verbal suffix "-n".
The question "¿eymi kay?" consists of the Personal Pronoun for the 2nd. Pers. Singular.
The particle "kay" is used to "return" the previous question to the other speaker.

- Iñce kafey
Note: "kafey" means "too" (i.e. "me, too")

2. Other greetings:
When leaving. we can say: "Pewkajal" and to this greeting, we can add the usual address "lamien / lamgen / lamuan" or "peñi" depending on the sex of the other speaker, as explained previously in this entry.
At night or in the evening and not to "temp fate" this greeting should be reformulated and becomes "Pewkalekejal"
Notice the use of the particles "-le-" and "-ke-"

[1] Catrileo, Maria, Mapudunguyu - Curso de lengua mapuche, Univ. de Chile, Facultad de Filisofía y humanidades, 1988

Nov 3, 2008

Seventh - Pronouns

4. Interrogative pronouns:
These are words are used to ask about a certain item or information missing in a sentence. They mark some piece of information that is missing and one would like to know more about.

4.1. Cem = What?
It is used to ask about the identity of a thing or things.
...¿Cem am ta tvfa? = what is this?
...Kawej ta tvfa = This is a horse
Note: in another entry I will explain the use of the particle "am". The particle "am" is not translated and works in the sentence as a question marker.

4.2. Iñey = Who? (in some regions it is pronounced: "iñi")
It is used to ask about the identity of a person or people.
...¿Iney pigeymi? = What's your name? (literally: "Who are called you" (notice the used of "who" instead of "how")
...Iñce Kajfv pigen = My name is Kallfü (literally: "I am called Kallfü")
Note: the verb "pigen" is equivalent to the English construction "to be called".
The verb root is "pige-" and the suffix corresponds to the 2nd. Pers. Singular "-ymi". The verb "pigen" is composed by the verbal root "pi-" (to say) and the reflexive particle "-ge-" (in another entry we will furhter describe the use of this particle)

4.3. Cew = Where
It is used to ask about a place
...¿Cew mvley tami ruka? = Where is your house?
...Fvskv Menuko mew mvley = (it) is in Fiske Menuko
Note: the verb "mvley" means "to be" but only in the stative sense. This is one of the few verbs that have its meaning in present (action verbs usually mean the action already happened).
"Tami" is a possessive adjective and it is used to mark possession of nouns ("tañi" = my, "tami" = your, etc.) In the response, the appear "mew" that is used in different sentences and here means "in".
"Fvskv Menuko" is the Mapuche designation of the city of Gral. Roca in Puelmapu.

4.5. Cum = How?
This interrogative pronoun has many derivatives(*)
It is used to ask about the manner or state and generally, it is used in combination with other particles
...¿Cumleymi? = ¿How are you? (note the use of the particle -le-)
...Kvmelen = I'm well
Note: The particle "-le-" usually marks that the action or event is happening now. Also, sometimes it is used to verbalize adjectives. In this case it is added the verbal suffix "-ymi".
The response consists of "kvmen" (good, well) + the particle "-le-" (used as a verbalizer)+ the verbal suffix "-n".

(*) The derivatives from the interrogative pronoun "cum" are:
4.5.1. ¿Cumten? ¿tunten? = How many?
It is used to ask about quantities
...¿Cumten kawaj nieymi? = How many horses do you have?
...Kecu nien = I have five

4.5.2. Cumvl = When?
It is used to ask about the time something happens
...¿Cumvl akualu? = When will he arrive?
...Wvle = tomorrow
Note: In this question, it is used the verbal root "aku-" + the future marker "-a-". The particle "-lu" will be explained in another entry. "Akun" = Arrive, "akulu" = when arrived (but also the one who arrived)

4.5.3. ¿Cumueci? ¿cumgeci? = in what manner?
It is used to ask to talk about the manner or way of something
...¿Cumgeci zewmagekey xuxuka?
...In what way the Trutruca is made?
Note: "zewmvn" = work + particle "-a-" + particle "-ge-" + particle "-ke-" (this particle marks that the action is made with habitude) + the verbal suffix "-y". The "xuxuka" or "trutruca" in Spanish is a typical musical instrument of the Mapuche People.

4.5.4. ¿Cumuelu? ¿cumgelu? = Why?
It is used to ask for the reason or motive something happend or was done.
...¿Cumgelu feypilu “kvmerkelay ñi ilo”?
...¿Why do you say that “my meat was not good”?
Note: "feypi-" is a composed verb: "fey" (this/that) + "pi-" (from the verb "pin" = to say). In quotation marks appear particles and constructions already explained. The particle "-la-" marks the negation (in other entries we will also introduce the other particles to mark negation) and the particle "-rke-" that denote surprise or as a remark in stories or tales (commonly used in narration). "Ilo" means "meat"

4.5.5. ¿Cumal? = What for?
It is used to ask about the reason or motive of a future event
...¿Cumal vxvftuafimi bafkeh mew?
...¿What for do you throw it back to the sea/lake?
Note: "vxvf-tu-a-fimi" is formed by the verb "vxvfvn" (deriving the verbal root "vxvf-" + the particle "-tu-" (that is used in different ways: here it means that the action was done voluntary) + "-a-" (future) + "-fi-" (marks the direct object or that generally the action is done on the noun immediately after the verb construction) + the verbal suffix "-(y)mi" (the first "-y-" is suppressed for the particle "-fi-" end in "-i")

4.6. ¿Tuci? ¿Cuci? = Which?
It is used to ask about a thing or person when there are other options
...¿Tuci ñawe ayvymi? = ¿Which of my daughters (do) you like?

5. Indefinite pronoun:
These are those that mark quantaties, identity or other notions indefinitely
They substitute a person or thing indefinitely or whose determination is not intended by the speaker.
The main Indefinite pronouns are: [1]
Kom = all
Tucirume = anyone (used for things)
Cemnorume = anything
Iñeynorume = anyone (used for people)
Kagelu = another
Fenxen = much
Fenxentu = much (time)

6. Distributive pronouns
These are formed by adding the particle "-ke" to the numbers.
Kiñeke = each one.
Epuke kvyeh = every 2 months
Melike xipantv = every 4 years
Note: "kvyeh" also means "moon"

[1] Gramática del idioma Mapuche del profesor Raguileo Lincopil, Agrupación Mapuche “Wixaleyiñ”, Marta Berretta, Dario Cañumil, Tulio Cañumil.