Nov 3, 2008

Seventh - Pronouns

4. Interrogative pronouns:
These are words are used to ask about a certain item or information missing in a sentence. They mark some piece of information that is missing and one would like to know more about.

4.1. Cem = What?
It is used to ask about the identity of a thing or things.
...¿Cem am ta tvfa? = what is this?
...Kawej ta tvfa = This is a horse
Note: in another entry I will explain the use of the particle "am". The particle "am" is not translated and works in the sentence as a question marker.

4.2. Iñey = Who? (in some regions it is pronounced: "iñi")
It is used to ask about the identity of a person or people.
...¿Iney pigeymi? = What's your name? (literally: "Who are called you" (notice the used of "who" instead of "how")
...Iñce Kajfv pigen = My name is Kallfü (literally: "I am called Kallfü")
Note: the verb "pigen" is equivalent to the English construction "to be called".
The verb root is "pige-" and the suffix corresponds to the 2nd. Pers. Singular "-ymi". The verb "pigen" is composed by the verbal root "pi-" (to say) and the reflexive particle "-ge-" (in another entry we will furhter describe the use of this particle)

4.3. Cew = Where
It is used to ask about a place
...¿Cew mvley tami ruka? = Where is your house?
...Fvskv Menuko mew mvley = (it) is in Fiske Menuko
Note: the verb "mvley" means "to be" but only in the stative sense. This is one of the few verbs that have its meaning in present (action verbs usually mean the action already happened).
"Tami" is a possessive adjective and it is used to mark possession of nouns ("tañi" = my, "tami" = your, etc.) In the response, the appear "mew" that is used in different sentences and here means "in".
"Fvskv Menuko" is the Mapuche designation of the city of Gral. Roca in Puelmapu.

4.5. Cum = How?
This interrogative pronoun has many derivatives(*)
It is used to ask about the manner or state and generally, it is used in combination with other particles
...¿Cumleymi? = ¿How are you? (note the use of the particle -le-)
...Kvmelen = I'm well
Note: The particle "-le-" usually marks that the action or event is happening now. Also, sometimes it is used to verbalize adjectives. In this case it is added the verbal suffix "-ymi".
The response consists of "kvmen" (good, well) + the particle "-le-" (used as a verbalizer)+ the verbal suffix "-n".

(*) The derivatives from the interrogative pronoun "cum" are:
4.5.1. ¿Cumten? ¿tunten? = How many?
It is used to ask about quantities
...¿Cumten kawaj nieymi? = How many horses do you have?
...Kecu nien = I have five

4.5.2. Cumvl = When?
It is used to ask about the time something happens
...¿Cumvl akualu? = When will he arrive?
...Wvle = tomorrow
Note: In this question, it is used the verbal root "aku-" + the future marker "-a-". The particle "-lu" will be explained in another entry. "Akun" = Arrive, "akulu" = when arrived (but also the one who arrived)

4.5.3. ¿Cumueci? ¿cumgeci? = in what manner?
It is used to ask to talk about the manner or way of something
...¿Cumgeci zewmagekey xuxuka?
...In what way the Trutruca is made?
Note: "zewmvn" = work + particle "-a-" + particle "-ge-" + particle "-ke-" (this particle marks that the action is made with habitude) + the verbal suffix "-y". The "xuxuka" or "trutruca" in Spanish is a typical musical instrument of the Mapuche People.

4.5.4. ¿Cumuelu? ¿cumgelu? = Why?
It is used to ask for the reason or motive something happend or was done.
...¿Cumgelu feypilu “kvmerkelay ñi ilo”?
...¿Why do you say that “my meat was not good”?
Note: "feypi-" is a composed verb: "fey" (this/that) + "pi-" (from the verb "pin" = to say). In quotation marks appear particles and constructions already explained. The particle "-la-" marks the negation (in other entries we will also introduce the other particles to mark negation) and the particle "-rke-" that denote surprise or as a remark in stories or tales (commonly used in narration). "Ilo" means "meat"

4.5.5. ¿Cumal? = What for?
It is used to ask about the reason or motive of a future event
...¿Cumal vxvftuafimi bafkeh mew?
...¿What for do you throw it back to the sea/lake?
Note: "vxvf-tu-a-fimi" is formed by the verb "vxvfvn" (deriving the verbal root "vxvf-" + the particle "-tu-" (that is used in different ways: here it means that the action was done voluntary) + "-a-" (future) + "-fi-" (marks the direct object or that generally the action is done on the noun immediately after the verb construction) + the verbal suffix "-(y)mi" (the first "-y-" is suppressed for the particle "-fi-" end in "-i")

4.6. ¿Tuci? ¿Cuci? = Which?
It is used to ask about a thing or person when there are other options
...¿Tuci ñawe ayvymi? = ¿Which of my daughters (do) you like?

5. Indefinite pronoun:
These are those that mark quantaties, identity or other notions indefinitely
They substitute a person or thing indefinitely or whose determination is not intended by the speaker.
The main Indefinite pronouns are: [1]
Kom = all
Tucirume = anyone (used for things)
Cemnorume = anything
Iñeynorume = anyone (used for people)
Kagelu = another
Fenxen = much
Fenxentu = much (time)

6. Distributive pronouns
These are formed by adding the particle "-ke" to the numbers.
Kiñeke = each one.
Epuke kvyeh = every 2 months
Melike xipantv = every 4 years
Note: "kvyeh" also means "moon"

[1] Gramática del idioma Mapuche del profesor Raguileo Lincopil, Agrupación Mapuche “Wixaleyiñ”, Marta Berretta, Dario Cañumil, Tulio Cañumil.

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