Jan 15, 2009

14th - Particles

Particles are morphemes that produce systematic, regular changes in the meaning of other morphemes they are added to.[1]

These particles can appear alone or in groups following a certain preset order.[2]
They do not have a meaning by themselves but only add meaning to the words they modify.[2]
In Mapuzugun, particles modify tense, number, mark negations, etc. [2]

There are 3 types of particles:
1. Intermediate or Middle Particles
2. Final particles
3. Independent or Free Particles

Intermediate or Middle Particles: are the ones placed between the root and the suffix of the verbs that they modify.
These particles will be listed as "-xx-".

Final Particles: are the ones that are added at the end of a word.
These particles will be listed as "-xx"

Independent or Free Particles: are the ones that are written separatelly from the word the modify.

Middle Particles can be classified as[2]:

1. Of time: mark the time when the action or state described by the verb takes place.

2. Of mood: mark some characterictics about the action or state described by the verb.

3. Of place: mark the place or direction in which an action is made.

4. Markers (Objectives): mark the object affected by the action verb.

5. Of negation: mark the negation of the verb.
There is a negative particle for each of the 3 moods in Mapuzugun: realis mood, volitive mood and conditional mood.

Particle "-le-" (of time):
This particle is placed bertween the verbal root and the suffix, and it is used:

i. To describe events happening now.
...xekan: I walked (to walk)
...xekalen: I am walking
Dynamic verbs (that express an action) imply the action is concluded. Adding the particle "-le-" changes the meaning to describe the event is happening now.

ii. To denote states, rather than actions
....apon: to fill
...apolen: to be full

iii. It is used to verbalize words that are not verbs.
....kvme: good
...kvmelen: to be good / fine
Note: as we saw in other entries, the response to the question: "¿cumleymi?" was: "Iñce kvmelen"
....xemon: healthy
...xemolen: to be healthy.
When the verbal root ends in consonant, remember the particle "-kv-" is added for euphonic reasons.
...kuxan: pain, sickness.
...kuxankvlen: it hurts (lit. I am in pain) / I am ill.
Note: to say something hurts it is used the verb in 3rd. person.
"Ñi logko kuxankvley"[3]
Lit. My head is in pain / my head hurts

"Some of these particles in Mapuzugun might have its origin in verbs"
Prof. Cañumil expressed that it is very likely that origin for this particle would be the verb "mvlen" (to be -only the stative meaning: indicating a state or condition)

Pici gvxamkan: (Small dialogues)

Carla and José greet each other:
Karla: Puh may, lamgen. ¿cumleymi?
Kose: Iñce k
vmelen. ¿Eymi kay?
Karla: Iñce kafey.
Note: "kafey" means "too"

Juan meets Rayen who does not look well
Kuan: Mari mari, lamgen. ¿Xemoleymi?
Rayen: Mari mari. Iñce k
vxankvlen. Kvxankvley tañi furi. ¿Eymi kay?
Kuan: Iñce xemolekan
Note: the particle "-ka-" is used as an emphasizer.

Other particles will be described in next entries.

[2] Cañumil, Tulio et al, op. cit.
[3] Class notes: 21 April 2008.

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