Jan 16, 2009

15th - Particles (Cont.)

In this entry I will introduce the Particles of Time.

These particles specify when an action was carried out or took place (as we saw in my previous entry, the particle "-le-" marks the action is happening now)

Particle "-ke-" [1] identifies habitual or customary actions.
...xekan = to walk
...xekaken = I usually walk.

Particle "-a-" [1] marks the future tense
...ajkvtun = to listen
...ajkvtuan = I will listen
Verbs whose root ends in "-a", the semivocal "-y-" is added for euphonic reasons.
...xekan = to walk => root: "xeka-" + suffix for the 1st Pesron Singular: "-n"
...xekayan = I will walk
The "-y-" can be omitted, resulting in: "xekaan"

Particle "-pe-" [1] marks an event in the immediate past, something that just happened
...ajkvtun = to listen
...ajkvtupen = I just heard

Particle "-fu-" [1] marks an event in the remote past, something that happened long time ago.
...ajkvtun = to listen
...ajkvtufun = I heard (long time ago)

Particles of time can be used in combination with other particles to modify or refine the meaning.
Tañi bakuem xekakefuy tvfaci lelfvn mew
Translation: My poor Grandfather (father's father) used to walk in these fields long time ago

Notes to my translation: As we already saw, "tañi" means "my" (notice that "ñi" also stands for "his/her"), "baku" means "your father's father", the final particle "-em" is added to persons that have passed away (it is used to express sorrow - the used of this particle will be explained in another entry)
"xekakefuy" is formed by the verb root "xeka-" meaning "to walk", the middle particle "-ke-" (marking the action was habitual), the middle particle "-fu-" marks the action happened long time ago, the suffix "-y" marks the 3rd. person singular.
"Tvfaci" means "this/these", "lelfvn" means "field" but also "fields" (as Mapuzugun nouns have either number nor gender), and "mew" is a postposition meaning in this context "in"

[1] Mapucezugun Ñi Cumgeel - Descripción de la lengua Mapuche (Description of the Mapuche language), Cañumil, T. Versión electrónica,

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